Fresnel Zone – Planning

In radio communications, a Fresnel zone (/freɪˈnɛl/ fray-nel), , is one of a (theoretically infinite) number of concentric ellipsoids which define volumes in the radiation pattern of a (usually) circular aperture. Fresnel zones result from diffraction by the circular aperture. The cross section of the first (innermost) Fresnel zone is circular. Subsequent Fresnel zones are annular (doughnut-shaped) in cross section, and concentric with the first.    The Fresnel Zone is named after the physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel.

Importance of Fresnel zones

CableFree Microwave and Radio Fresnel Zone
Microwave and Radio Fresnel Zone

If unobstructed, radio waves will travel in a straight line from the transmitter to the receiver. But if there are reflective surfaces along the path, such as bodies of water or smooth terrain, the radio waves reflecting off those surfaces may arrive either out of phase or in phase with the signals that travel directly to the receiver. Waves that reflect off of surfaces within an even Fresnel zone are out of phase with the direct-path wave and reduce the power of the received signal. Waves that reflect off of surfaces within an odd Fresnel zone are in phase with the direct-path wave and can enhance the power of the received signal. Sometimes this results in the counter-intuitive finding that reducing the height of an antenna increases the signal-to-noise ratio.

Fresnel provided a means to calculate where the zones are–where a